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Qatar, pronounced in Dutch as kat-tar ([k?'tar]?, Sound fragment pronunciation (info / explanation)), officially the State of Qatar (Arabic: ???? ???, Daulat Qatar), is an Arab emirate in the Middle East, on the Persian Gulf. It is a peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia and east of Bahrain. Qatar is an absolute monarchy. The head of state is Emir Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani. The country is a member of the Arab League.
Qatar is located halfway along the western coast of the Persian Gulf between 24°27' and 26°10' N and 50°45' and 51°40' E. Off the coast are a number of islands that belong to Qatar. The country is about 11,600 km² in size, which is just over a quarter of the size of the Netherlands or Belgium.
Qatar is a barren desert area with karst phenomena in the limestone areas. Artesian springs occur along the coasts. In the south, at the boundary of the Arabian Peninsula, are the salt marshes (sabchahs) of al Amra. The country is fairly flat, with a few ridges in the west, where the highest point is also located: the Qurayn Abu al Bawl, with 103 meters.
The desert climate results in exceptionally hot summers and warm winters. In summer the temperature does not fall below 25 °C and can rise to 46 °C. The amount of precipitation is limited, with an average of 75 millimeters on an annual basis. Most rain falls from December to March. The humidity level is low. Flora and fauna are very scarce.
During the early 20th century, the area had only ten thousand inhabitants. The population has increased rapidly, partly due to immigration from other Arab countries. Only 20% are Qatari. The immigrants come mainly from other Arab countries, the Philippines, Iran, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, India and Nepal. More Indians (630,000) and Nepalese (400,000) live in Qatar than Qataris.
The 1997 census counted 522,000 inhabitants. In 2004 this had risen to 744,000 and by the end of September 2017 this had risen to 2,634,234. With 1.4 million men, there is a clear shortage of women. About half of the population lives in and around the capital Doha.Source: Wikipedia
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